3D Mammogram Overview

A 3D mammogram (breast tomosynthesis) is an imaging test that combines multiple breast X-rays to create a three-dimensional picture of the breast.

A 3D mammogram is used to look for breast cancer in people who have no signs or symptoms. It can also be used to investigate the cause of breast problems, such as a breast mass, pain and nipple discharge.

When used for breast cancer screening, 3D mammogram machines create 3D images and standard 2D mammogram images. Studies show that combining 3D mammograms with standard mammograms reduces the need for additional imaging and slightly increases the number of cancers detected during screening. But more study is needed to understand whether 3D mammograms may reduce the risk of dying of breast cancer more than a standard mammogram alone.

The 3D mammogram is becoming more common, but it isn’t available at all medical facilities.


Why it’s done

A 3D mammogram is used as a breast cancer screening test to look for breast cancer in people with no signs or symptoms of the disease. It can also be used to investigate breast problems, such as a suspicious lump or thickening.

When used for breast cancer screening, the 3D mammogram machine creates 3D images and standard 2D mammogram images because both types of images have some advantages in seeing certain breast abnormalities.

Combining a 3D mammogram with a standard mammogram can:

  • Reduce the need for follow-up imaging. When doctors detect abnormalities on standard mammogram images, they may recommend additional imaging. Being called back for additional imaging can be stressful. It may take extra time and lead to additional costs. Combining a 3D mammogram with a standard mammogram reduces the need for follow-up imaging.
  • Detect slightly more cancers than a standard mammogram alone. Studies indicate that combining a 3D mammogram with a standard mammogram can result in about one more breast cancer for every 1,000 women screened when compared with a standard mammogram alone.
  • Improve breast cancer detection in dense breast tissue. A 3D mammogram offers advantages in detecting breast cancer in people with dense breast tissue because the 3D image allows doctors to see beyond areas of density.Breast tissue is composed of milk glands, milk ducts and supportive tissue (dense breast tissue), and fatty tissue. Dense breasts have greater amounts of dense breast tissue than fatty tissue. Both dense breast tissue and cancers appear white on a standard mammogram, which may make breast cancer more difficult to detect in dense breasts.


A 3D mammogram is a safe procedure. As with every test, it carries certain risks and limitations, such as:

  • Exposure to a low level of radiation. A 3D mammogram uses X-rays to create an image of the breast, which exposes you to a low level of radiation. Because a 3D mammogram is usually combined with a standard mammogram, the level of radiation may be greater than a standard mammogram alone. Some newer 3D mammogram machines can create both 3D and 2D images at the same time, which lowers the amount of radiation.
  • The test may find something that turns out to not be cancer. A 3D mammogram may identify an abnormality that, after additional tests, turns out to be benign or consistent with normal tissue. This is known as a false-positive result, and it can cause unneeded anxiety if you undergo additional imaging and testing, such as a biopsy, to further assess the suspicious area.
  • The test can’t detect all cancers. It’s possible for a 3D mammogram to miss an area of cancer, such as if the cancer is very small or if it’s in an area that’s difficult to see.

How you prepare

To prepare for your 3D mammogram:

  • Choose a facility that offers 3D mammograms. Though 3D mammograms are becoming more common, they aren’t available everywhere. If you’re interested in this test, ask your doctor whether it’s available in your area.
  • Check with your insurance provider. Not all insurance companies cover 3D mammograms. Check with your insurance provider before your test so that you’ll know what types of costs to expect. Your insurance company may cover the standard mammogram portion of the test, while you’ll be responsible for the cost of the 3D mammogram portion.
  • Schedule the test for a time when your breasts are least likely to be tender. If you haven’t gone through menopause, that’s usually during the week after your menstrual period. Your breasts are most likely to be tender the week before and the week during your period.
  • Bring your prior mammogram images. If you’re going to a new facility for your 3D mammogram, gather any prior mammograms and bring them with you to your appointment so that the radiologist can compare them to your new images.
  • Don’t use deodorant before your mammogram. Avoid using deodorants, antiperspirants, powders, lotions, creams or perfumes under your arms or on your breasts. Metallic particles in powders and deodorants can interfere with the imaging.

What you can expect

At the testing facility, you’re given a gown and asked to remove any necklaces and clothing from the waist up. To make this easier, wear a two-piece outfit that day.

For the procedure itself, you stand in front of an X-ray machine equipped to perform 3D mammograms. The technician places one of your breasts on a platform and raises or lowers the platform to match your height. The technician helps you position your head, arms and torso to allow an unobstructed view of your breast.

Your breast is gradually pressed against the platform by a clear plastic plate. Pressure is applied for a few seconds to spread out the breast tissue. The pressure isn’t harmful, but you may find it uncomfortable or even painful. If you have too much discomfort, tell the technician.

Next, the 3D mammogram machine will move above you from one side to the other as it collects images. You may be asked to stand still and hold your breath for a few seconds to minimize movement.

The pressure on your breast is released, and the machine is repositioned to take an image of your breast from the side. Your breast is positioned against the platform again, and the clear plastic plate is used to apply pressure. The camera takes images again. The process is then repeated on the other breast.


The images collected during a 3D mammogram are synthesized by a computer to form a 3D picture of your breast. The 3D mammogram images can be analyzed as a whole or examined in small fractions for greater detail. For breast cancer screening purposes, the machine also creates standard 2D mammogram images.

A doctor who specializes in interpreting imaging tests (radiologist) examines the images to look for abnormalities that may be breast cancer. If the radiologist sees anything unusual, he or she will use your standard mammogram and any older mammogram images that are available to determine whether additional testing is needed.

Additional tests for breast cancer may include an ultrasound, an MRI or, sometimes, a biopsy to remove suspicious cells for testing in a lab by doctors who specialize in analyzing body tissue (pathology testing).

 Information provided by mayoclinic.org

Bone Density Testing Overview

A bone density test determines if you have osteoporosis — a disorder characterized by bones that are more fragile and more likely to break.

The test uses X-rays to measure how many grams of calcium and other bone minerals are packed into a segment of bone. The bones that are most commonly tested are in the spine, hip, and sometimes the forearm.

Why it’s done

Doctors use bone density testing to:

  • Identify decreases in bone density before you break a bone
  • Determine your risk of broken bones (fractures)
  • Confirm a diagnosis of osteoporosis
  • Monitor osteoporosis treatment

The higher your bone mineral content, the denser your bones are. And the denser your bones, the stronger they generally are and the less likely they are to break.

Bone density tests differ from bone scans. Bone scans require an injection beforehand and are usually used to detect fractures, cancer, infections, and other abnormalities in the bone.

Although osteoporosis is more common in older women, men also can develop the condition. Regardless of your sex or age, your doctor may recommend a bone density test if you’ve:

  • Lost height. People who have lost at least 1.5 inches (3.8 centimeters) in height may have compression fractures in their spines, for which osteoporosis is one of the main causes.
  • Fractured a bone. Fragility fractures occur when a bone becomes so fragile that it breaks much more easily than expected. Fragility fractures can sometimes be caused by a strong cough or sneeze.
  • Taken certain drugs. Long-term use of steroid medications, such as prednisone, interferes with the bone-rebuilding process — which can lead to osteoporosis.
  • Had a drop in hormone levels. In addition to the natural drop in hormones that occurs after menopause, women’s estrogen may also drop during certain cancer treatments. Some treatments for prostate cancer reduce testosterone levels in men. Lowered sex hormone levels weaken bone


Limitations of bone density testing include:

  • Differences in testing methods. Devices that measure the density of the bones in the spine and hip are more accurate but cost more than do devices that measure the density of the peripheral bones of the forearm, finger, or heel.
  • Previous spinal problems. Test results may not be accurate in people who have structural abnormalities in their spines, such as severe arthritis, previous spinal surgeries, or scoliosis.
  • Radiation exposure. Bone density testing uses X-rays, but the amount of radiation exposure is usually very small. Even so, pregnant women should avoid these tests.
  • Lack of information about the cause. A bone density test can confirm that you have low bone density, but it can’t tell you why. To answer that question, you need a more complete medical evaluation.
  • Limited insurance coverage. Not all health insurance plans pay for bone density tests, so ask your insurance provider beforehand if this test is covered.

How you prepare

Bone density tests are easy, fast, and painless. Virtually no preparation is needed.

Be sure to tell your doctor beforehand if you’ve recently had a barium exam or had contrast material injected for a CT scan or nuclear medicine test. Contrast materials might interfere with your bone density test.

Food and medications

Avoid taking calcium supplements for at least 24 hours before your bone density test.

Clothing and personal items

Wear loose, comfortable clothing and avoid wearing clothes with zippers, belts, or buttons. Leave your jewelry at home and remove all metal objects from your pockets, such as keys, money clips, or change.

What you can expect

Bone density tests are usually done on bones that are most likely to break because of osteoporosis, including:

  • Lower spine bones (lumbar vertebrae)
  • The narrow neck of your thighbone (femur), next to your hip joint
  • Bones in your forearm

If you have your bone density test done at a hospital, it’ll probably be done on a device where you lie on a padded platform while a mechanical arm passes over your body. The amount of radiation you’re exposed to is very low, much less than the amount emitted during a chest X-ray. The test usually takes about 10 to 30 minutes.

A small, portable machine can measure bone density in the bones at the far ends of your skeleton, such as those in your finger, wrist, or heel. The instruments used for these tests are called peripheral devices and are often used at health fairs.

Because bone density can vary from one location in your body to another, a measurement is taken at your heel usually isn’t as accurate a predictor of fracture risk as a measurement taken at your spine or hip. Consequently, if your test on a peripheral device is positive, your doctor might recommend a follow-up scan at your spine or hip to confirm your diagnosis.


Your bone density test results are reported in two numbers: T-score and Z-score.


Your T-score is your bone density compared with what is normally expected in a healthy young adult of your sex. Your T-score is the number of units — called standard deviations — that your bone density is above or below the average.

T-score What your score means
-1 and above

Your bone density is considered normal.

Between -1 and -2.5

Your score is a sign of osteopenia, a condition in which bone density is below normal and may lead to osteoporosis.

-2.5 and below

Your bone density indicates you likely have osteoporosis.


Your Z-score is the number of standard deviations above or below what’s normally expected for someone of your age, sex, weight, and ethnic or racial origin. If your Z-score is significantly higher or lower than the average, you may need additional tests to determine the cause of the problem.

Information provided by mayoclinic.org